Glossary

A

Activated annealing

Category: Process

After injecting impurities (dissimilar elements) into the substrate, to create a semiconductor layer, heat treatment is used to recover the broken crystal structure and electrically activate it.

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Activation

Category: Process

Ions implanted in the ion implantation process are inactive because they are not aligned with atomic crystals in the semiconductor. The crystal lattice also needs to be repaired because of crystal defects. Activation is a process of using heat to adjust the crystal lattice and activate these ions.

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Annealing

Category: Process

Various heat treatments required in manufacturing semiconductor devices.

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B

Batch processing

Category: Applications

A method of placing multiple wafers on a quartz boat or the like and processing them together. This is suitable for producing few items in large quantities. To ensure uniformity in batches, it is necessary to use a technology that maintains uniform gas and temperature distribution.

C

Compound semiconductor

Category: Applications

Semiconductor material composed of a combination of multiple elements of groups III–V and II–VI in the periodic table such as GaAs, GaN, CdTe, and SiC.

Contact annealing

Category: Process

When a metal is in contact with a semiconductor, a Schottky barrier diode may form, resulting in current flow only in one direction. Heat treatment is required to alloy the contact surface so the current flows in both directions.
This situation is called an ohmic contact.

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Curing

Category: Process

Curing means that a polymerization reaction of a monomer or cross-linking reaction of a polymer is promoted by some action (heat, chemical additives, light, etc.). The monomer or polymer is then said to be cured.

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D

Dehydrogenation(for FPD)

Category: Process

In the LTPS (low-temperature polycrystalline silicon) process, an a-Si film is formed, laser annealing is performed, and the film is poly-siliconized. Heat treatment is done to reduce the hydrogen component concentration before laser annealing because of damage to the film by the hydrogen component contained in the a-Si layer.

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F

Fan-out Wafer

Category: Workpieces

Resin substrate handled in the FOWLP (fan-out wafer level package) manufacturing process. FOWLP is a generic term for packages that form a rewiring layer outside the chip size. It can be used to downsize/thin a package compared to traditional packages.

FPD

Category: Applications

FPD is an abbreviation for Flat Panel Display. Thin displays such as organic EL (OLED) or liquid crystal displays.

Frit firing(for FPD)

Category: Process

A method of kneading the glass particles, resin, solvent, etc. to produce a glass paste, coat the substrate with this glass paste by printing method, and then fire it. Used for joining, sealing, and coating the electronic components.

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G

GaAs wafer

Category: Workpieces

Wafer using a compound composed of gallium (Ga) and arsenic (As) as the material. Compared to silicon, it has lower strength and is more expensive, but because of its high electron mobility, it can be used to produce high-speed semiconductor devices with low power consumption. Also used for the substrate in LEDs and lasers.

Gettering

Category: Process

Some impurities in the substrate may have adverse effects on LSI performance. This method uses the crystal characteristics, etc. of the substrate to collect these impurities.

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H

Heavy Gauge Coil Heater

Category: Equipment-related

Heater with excellent high-temperature durability using a combination of a heavy-gauge coil and spacer. Ideal for applications with repeated high temperature treatment up to 1250°C, such as diffusion furnaces.

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High Temperature Oxide

Category: Process

Oxide film used as a gate oxide layer that is formed under low pressure at high temperature (about 900°C) by using dichlorosilane (SiH2Cl2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) gases as raw materials.

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Horizontal Furnace

Category: Equipment-related

A furnace with a horizontal chamber such as a quartz glass tube, where multiple silicon wafers for semiconductors, solar batteries and the like can be bulk-processed for heat treatment at high temperature or to deposit any film on the wafer.

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I

IGBT

Category: Applications

Abbreviation for Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor. A type of power semiconductor. Its input has a MOSFET structure and its output has a bipolar structure. It is characterized by a relatively high switching speed and low on-resistance.

Impurity diffusion

Category: Process

A method of diffusing impurities such as phosphorus and boron by heating the silicon, a process generally called heat diffusion. This method is also called ion implantation because the impurities are ionized directly and implanted into the wafers. In this case, activating annealing is required after ion implantation. Both methods are often used to form PN junctions.

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L

Lamp Anneal

Category: Equipment-related

Heat treatment system that uses light such as from halogen lamps as a heating source. Since it only heats the workpiece and not the atmosphere, treatments with rapid temperature rises and falls can be processed.

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Large Bore Vertical Furnace

Category: Equipment-related

Baking furnace developed for large-scale glass substrate annealing in the FPD field. The glass substrate size is 2.5 generations or more. With a structure following that of vertical furnaces for semiconductor devices, a glass substrate is installed inside a large quartz glass tube and then heated at high temperature to achieve any annealing treatment.

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Light Gauge Over-bend Heater

Category: Equipment-related

Heaters that use light-gauge wires for heating elements that are integrated with ceramic fiber thermal insulating materials into a solid structure using our unique vacuum forming process. Since only a small amount of heat is stored, they can be controlled with high precision even at low temperatures and when temperatures rapidly rise or fall, and have excellent temperature following.

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Low stress Silicon Nitride

Category: Process

Since silicon nitride film is generally under high stress, cracks and warping can occur. Therefore, a nitride film is used for reduced stress. Used for relaxing film stress in MEMS (micro electro-mechanical systems) and other devices.

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Low Temperature Oxide

Category: Process

A type of LPCVD.
It uses SiH4 and O2 as raw materials to form an oxide film at low temperature (about 400°C) under reduced pressure. Used as an interlayer insulating film, etc.

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Low Temperature Wet Oxidation

Category: Process

A method of inserting a wafer for a compound semiconductor such as GaAs into the quartz tube heated at a relatively low temperature of 500°C or less, inject the steam into the tube, and then oxidize the wafer. Used for the aperture forming process of VCSEL.

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LPCVD

Category: Process

Abbreviation for Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition. A method of depositing and forming the polysilicon (poly-Si) and silicon nitride (Si3N4) films under a low pressure of tens of Pa.

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M

MEMS

Category: Applications

MEMS is an abbreviation for Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems. Device where fine mechanical structures and electronic circuits of micron order are manufactured on the silicon and glass. Recently, there is also a multi-chip type module that combines the mechanical structure and electronic circuit.

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Molybdenum disilicide Heater

Category: Equipment-related

Using molybdenum disilicide as a heating element, it is ideal for applications with repeated high temperature treatment up to 1400°C. It has excellent heat resistance properties and enables rapid heating.

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N

N2 Load Lock

Category: Equipment-related

N2 purge chamber installed in the substrate transfer area. It is used to reduce the concentration of oxygen and moisture in the atmosphere when the substrate is transferred into and removed from this chamber to suppress formation of a natural oxide film.

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O

Organic Light Emitting Diode

Category: Applications

An OLED is a device composed of a series of organic thin films between two conductors and emits light in response to an electric current. Because it emits light spontaneously, it does not need a backlight. It is also thinner and consumes less power than an LCD.

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Ormic Contact

Category: Applications

A contact interface with the characteristic that regardless of the current direction or voltage magnitude, the resistance value does not change, and the relationship between the voltage, current, and resistance follows Ohm's law. For example, the electrodes of semiconductor devices such as transistors, diodes, and ICs are ohmic contacts.

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Oven

Category: Equipment-related

A general term for heat treatment equipment. In our equipment, it refers to hot air circulation-type heating equipment.

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Oxynitride

Category: Process

A method of using NO or N2O to form a thin film of SiON. It helps improve the interface level by introducing nitrogen into the interface of the gate oxidation film.

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P

P-Doped Poly-Si

Category: Process

A polysilicon film with N-type attribute obtained by injecting phosphine (PH3) gas and doped phosphorus when depositing polysilicon. Used for making contact with the electrode wiring.

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POA(Post Oxidation Anneal)

Category: Process

Annealing performed for the purpose of reforming the MOS interface after the main oxidation process when forming the gate oxide film of the MOSFET.

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Polymide

Category: Applications

Polyimide is a generic term for imide-containing polymers. It has heat resistance and chemical resistance and is used for industrial applications in harsh environments. For example, it is used for protective film and insulating material for semiconductors, fibers for protective clothing, and heat-resistant tape.

Polymide curing

Category: Process

A method of heating a polyimide film for use as a protective film or insulating material for a semiconductor at about 200°C to 400°C and curing it.

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Poly-Si

Category: Process

Film deposited and formed by using monosilane (SiH4) gas under low pressure at high temperature (about 650°C). Often used for gate electrodes.

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Power semiconductor
Power Device

Category: Applications

A power semiconductor is a semiconductor that performs electrical tasks such as insulation, conductivity, amplification, rectification, and frequency conversion. Recently, SiC and GaN are being used as next-generation materials for reducing power loss at higher voltages.

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Pyrogenic oxideation

Category: Process

A method of thermal oxidation that uses water vapor generated in the combustion of hydrogen and oxygen to form an oxide film on a semiconductor material such as silicon.

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R

Rapid Cooling

Category: Equipment-related

System for sending air to the heater with a blower fan and force cooling the furnace in order to rapidly cool the interior of the furnace.

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Research and development(R&D)

Category: Applications

Activities that explore the development of both accumulated and new technologies to find new value looking to the years ahead.

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S

Saphire wafer

Category: Workpieces

Sapphire is a transparent material with high hardness, corrosion resistance, and heat resistance. It is used for optical devices such as LEDs and semiconductor lasers.

Semiconductor manufacturing process/Back end

Category: Applications

This is also called the packaging process. Process where IC chips produced in the previous step are separated from the wafer, and processed with rewiring (such as wire bonding) and resin sealing to produce an IC package.

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Semiconductor manufacturing process/Front end

Category: Applications

Also called the wafer processing step. In the process of forming a semiconductor device on the wafer surface, several methods of heat treatment are used such as oxidation, diffusion, and CVD.

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Si wafer

Category: Workpieces

Wafer cut from an ingot of high-purity silicon. It forms the base for a semiconductor. Heat treatment equipment can be used to introduce impurities into it at high temperature and form an insulating film to produce semiconductor elements (IC and LSI).

SiC wafer

Category: Workpieces

Wafer cut from an ingot of SiC. It is often used for power semiconductors and operates at higher temperature and higher speed than silicon alone. Its manufacturing method is more difficult and expensive than that of silicon.

Silicon Nitride

Category: Process

Silicon nitride film, used as a protective film for MEMS. In LPCVD, a film is often formed by reacting a silane-based gas such as dichlorosilane (SiH2Cl2) with ammonia (NH3) gas at high temperature under a low pressure of tens of Pa.

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Single wafer processing

Category: Applications

A processing method in which one process is performed on only one substrate compared to batch processing where tens of substrates are processed in bulk. This is suitable for lines that produce small quantities of many kinds in a short period of time. Also, since substrates are processed one by one, detailed control is possible. In processes requiring rapid temperature rise and fine atmosphere control, single wafer processing is required even on batch lines.

Sintering/Alloying

Category: Process

An annealing treatment performed after sputtering a metal film such as aluminum. This treatment is often performed in a hydrogen atmosphere, and is done in order to alloy the contact surface with silicon and obtain an ohmic contact.

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Solar cell / Solar Module / Photovoltaic power generation

Category: Applications

An energy conversion element that utilizes sunlight and the photovoltaic effect to convert light energy into electric power. It is made with semiconductors that include mainly silicon. Others include CIGS compound solar batteries using Cu, In, Ga, Se and S, and CdTe solar batteries.

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T

Tetraethoxysilane

Category: Process

Used when depositing SiO2 in LPCVD. Because it is a liquid material, a special vaporizer is needed.
It is characterized by fluidity and excellent coverage.

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Thermal oxideation

Category: Process

A method of exposing a semiconductor material such as a silicon wafer at high temperature in an oxidizing atmosphere such as oxygen or water vapor to form an oxide film. The method includes dry oxidation and pyrogenic oxidation.

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Thin wafer

Category: Applications

A wafer thinner than the thickness specified by the SEMI standard, Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS), and the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) for each wafer diameter. Often used for power devices.

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V

Vertical Cavitiy Surface emitting Laser

Category: Applications

Vertical cavity (or resonator)-type surface-emitting laser. This is commonly called a VCSEL. Unlike the conventional horizontal resonator type, voltage can be applied to chips in the wafer state, laser inspection of products can be performed with less mirror loss due to laser oscillation, and it features low power consumption. Also, it enables multi-beam synthesis of two-dimensional arrays.

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Vertical Furnace

Category: Equipment-related

A furnace with a vertical chamber such as a quartz glass tube, where multiple silicon wafers for semiconductors and the like can be bulk-processed for heat treatment at high temperature or to deposit any film on the wafer.

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